Relationship between technological change, digitization, and students’ attitudes toward distance learning in Lagos Higher Education institutes




Change, Higher education, Organizational Culture, Technology, Digital, Distance Learning, Student Attitudes


The focus of this research is to investigate the relationship between learning flexibility, support services, and students' attitudes toward remote learning programs in Nigeria. A correlational research methodology is used, and 385 individuals drawn from a multi-stage sampling technique form the study's sample. The data collecting tool is a three-section questionnaire devised by the researchers. Experts validated the questionnaire, which was then administered once on a randomly selected sample to assess the internal consistency. The Cronbach Alpha formula produced values of .74, .77, and .78 for the three separate questionnaire constructs. At the .05 level of significance, two research questions were posed, and two related null hypotheses were investigated. The collected data is analysed using the Mean, Standard Deviation, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation formulas. The findings show that there is a positive relationship between digital learning flexibility and students' attitudes toward distant learning programs (r =.439, Freq=476, p.05). There is also a favourable link between technology supports and students' attitudes toward distant learning programs (r =.339, Freq=476, p.05). It is thus recommended, among other things, that providers of distance learning programs guarantee high flexibility and quality learner support services to cater to the academic needs of learners with different characteristics, as this would improve students' positive attitudes and increase the enrolment of candidates in distance learning programs.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Joy Onyekwere, University Malaya

University Malaya, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management, Planning & Policy

Kazi Enamul Hoque, Universiti Malaya

University Malaya, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management, Planning & Policy


Afify, M. K. (2018). The Effect of the Difference Between Infographic Designing Types (Static vs Animated) on Developing Visual Learning Designing Skills and Recognition of its Elements and Principles. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(9).

Ain, N., Kaur, K., & Waheed, M. (2016). The influence of learning value on learning management system use: An extension of UTAUT2. Information Development, 32(5), 1306-1321.

Alas, R., & Vadi, M. (2006). The impact of organisational culture on organisational learning and attitudes concerning change from an institutional perspective. International Journal of Strategic Change Management, 1(1-2), 155-170.

Aldhafeeri, F. M., & Khan, B. H. (2016). Teachers’ and students’ views on e-learning readiness in kuwait’s secondary public schools. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 45(2), 202–235.

Alhih, M., Ossiannilsson, E., & Berigel, M. (2017). Levels of interaction provided by online distance education models. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(6), 2733-2748. https://doi.org10.12973/eurasia.2017.01250a

Andreoni, A., & Anzolin, G. (2019). A revolution in the making? Challenges and opportunities of digital production Technologies for developing countries (Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series No. 7). UNIDO.

Asiri, M. J. S., Mahmud, R. B., Bakar, K. A., & Ayub, A. F. B. M. (2012). Factors influencing the use of learning management system in Saudi Arabian higher education: A theoretical framework. Higher Education Studies, 2(2), 125-137.

Asongu, S. A., & Tchamyou, V. S. (2020). Human capital , knowledge creation , knowledge diffusion , institutions and economic incentives : South Korea versus Africa. Contemporary Social Science, 15(1), 26–47.

Awang, Z. (2014). A Handbook on SEM for Academicians and Practitioners: the step by step practical guides for the beginners. Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Resources, 10(3), 32-45.

Bourne, D. T. T., & Bourne, D. T. T. (2017). An investigation of senior secondary school teachers’ experiences of integrating information and communication technologies into teaching and learning in the era of Australia’ s Digital Education Revolution. University of Wollongong Research Online.

Cassidy, A., Fu, G., Valley, W., Lomas, C., Jovel, E., & Riseman, A. (2016). Flexible learning strategies in first through fourth-year courses. Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching, 9, 83-94.

Çetin, S., De Wolf, C., & Bocken, N. (2021). Circular digital built environment: An emerging framework. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(11), 1–34.

Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of applied psychology, 78(1), 98-104.

Davis, F. D. (1986). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results [Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology].

Edebatu, D. C., Ekwonwune, E. N., & Ezeobi, C. (2019). Learning Management System for improved service delivery in tertiary institution. International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, 12(3), 37-48.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley.

Ghavifekr, S., & Rosdy, W. A. W. (2015). Teaching and Learning with Technology: Effectiveness of ICT Integration in Schools. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 1(2), 175.

Hassan, M., Sibtain, S., Shah, A., & Padlee, S. F. (2019). Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Dynamics of Online Purchase Adaptability. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(1), 1-13.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Evaluating Model Fit: a Synthesis of the Structural Equation Modelling Literature [Conference paper]. 7th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, Regent's College, London, United Kingdom.

Hussain, S., Mustafa, M. W., Jumani, T. A., Baloch, S. K., Alotaibi, H., Khan, I., & Khan, A. (2021). A novel feature engineered-CatBoost-based supervised machine learning framework for electricity theft detection. Energy Reports, 7(3), 4425–4436.

Jain, V. (2014). 3D Model of Attitude. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 3(3), 1-12.

Jayanthi, M. K., Srivatsa, S. K., & Ramesh, T. (2007). Object oriented analysis and design of e-Learning system. Information Technology Journal, 6(6), 818-826.

Kelman, H. C. (1958). Compliance, Identification, and Internalization: Three Processes of Attitude Change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(1), 51-60.

Kelman, H. C. (1961). Processes of Opinion Change. Public Opinion Quarterly 25(1), 57-78.

Kim, C., & Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivation, Volition and Belief Change Strategies to Improve Mathematics Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(5), 407-420.

Li, H., & Yu, J. (2020). Learners’ continuance participation intention of collaborative group project in virtual learning environment: an extended TAM perspective. Journal of Data, Information and Management, 2(1), 39–53.

Luhamya, A., Bakkabulindi, F. E. K., & Muyinda, P. B. (2017). Integration of ICT in teaching and learning: a review of theories. Makerere Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 21-36.

Mallya, J., Lakshminarayanan, S., & Payini, V. (2019). Self-efficacy as an antecedent to students ’ behavioral intention to use the Internet for academic purposes : A structural equation modeling approach. Library philosophy and practice.

Mayanja, J., Tibaingana, A., & Birevu, P. M. (2019). Promoting Student Support in Open and Distance Learning Using Information and Communication Technologies. Journal of Learning for Development, 6(2), 177-186.

Mohammed, B. H., Safie, N., Sallehuddin, H., & Hussain, A. H. Bin. (2020). Building Information Modelling (BIM) and the Internet-of-Things (IoT): A Systematic Mapping Study. IEEE Access, 8, 155171–155183.

Muhammad, Z., & Johar, F. (2019). Critical success factors of public–private partnership projects: a comparative analysis of the housing sector between Malaysia and Nigeria. International Journal of Construction Management, 19(3), 257–269.

Mutahar, A. M., Norzaidi, M. D., Ramayah, T., & Isaac, O. (2017). Integration of Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to Understand Mobile Banking Acceptance in Yemen : The Moderating Effect of Income. June. International Journal of Soft Computing, 12(3), 164-177.

Nicholas-Omoregbe, O. S., Azeta, A. A., Chiazor, I. A., & Omoregbe, N. (2017). Prediting the adoption of e-learning management system : A case of selected private universities in Nigeria. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 106–121.

Ojogiwa, O. T., & Qwabe, B. R. (2021). Leveraging on the management of organisational cultural change for an improved change outcome in the Nigerian public health sector. African Journal of Governance and Development, 10(1), 61–79.

Okeke, I. E., Udem, O. K., & Onwurah, B. (2015). Digitization of Library Resources in University Libraries: A Practical Approach, Challenges and Prospects. Madonna University Journal of Research in Library and Information Science, 3(2), 36-47.

Okoroma, F. N. (2018). Technological and Infrastructural Issues of Institutional Repositories in University Libraries in Nigeria: And the Way Forward. International Information & Library Review, 50(3), 251-262.

Okposio O. Collins. (2011). The use of ict in teaching and learning of physical education. Continental Journal of Education Research, 4(2), 29–32.

Parra, C. M., Gupta, M., & Mikalef, P. (2021). Information and communication technologies (ICT)-enabled severe moral communities and how the (Covid19) pandemic might bring new ones. International Journal of Information Management, 57, 1-16.

Purwanti, Y., Erlangga, H., Kurniasih, D., Pratama, A., Sunarsi, D., Manan, A., Imam Duta Waskita, N., Ilham, D., Aditya Dwiwarman, D., & Purwanto, A. (2021). The Influence Of Digital Marketing & Innovasion On The School Performance. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(7), 118–127.

Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations. Free Press of Glencoe.

Samsudeen, S. N., & Mohamed, R. (2019). University students’ intention to use e-learning systems: A study of higher educational institutions in Sri Lanka. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 16(3), 219–238.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.

Vermeulen, M., Kreijns, K., van Buuren, H., & Van Acker, F. (2017). The role of transformative leadership, ICT-infrastructure and learning climate in teachers’ use of digital learning materials during their classes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(6), 1427–1440.

Wright, K. O., Tayo, F., Odusanya, O. O., Kuyinu, Y. A., Odugbemi, B., Arowolo, T., & Bakare, O. (2013). Perception and practices of Lagos state residents on the prevention and control of malaria in Lagos, Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, 6(5), 503. ttps://




How to Cite

Onyekwere, J., & Enamul Hoque, K. . (2023). Relationship between technological change, digitization, and students’ attitudes toward distance learning in Lagos Higher Education institutes. Innoeduca. International Journal of Technology and Educational Innovation, 9(1), 126–142.