Barriers or Motivation? Career Progress in the Family Firm: Daughters' Perspective
Keywords:Family business, Gender, Motivation, Barriers, Position, Ethics
Women are under-represented in high-level management and administrative positions in family businesses. To date, the research on career motivation remains in the shadow of research on gender barriers. By acknowledging the relation between the two, it is proposed to look holistically at the problem and to empirically examine the relation between motivation, barriers, and position of daughters in family business. By conducting SEM analysis, it was found that motivation to act ethically is positively associated with high positions and that barriers “specific to family business” are negatively related to high positions. This article validates two scales and makes methodological contributions to the stream of research on daughters in family business that to date relies mainly on qualitative studies.
Akhmedova, A., Cavallotti, R., & Marimon, F. (2015). What Makes a Woman to Choose to
Work in a Family Company Instead of a Looking for a Position in the Work Market or Creating Her Own Company?: a Literature Review. European Accounting and Management Review, Vol. 2 (1), 85-106
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Macmillan.
Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. Yale University Press.
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual.
Bentler, P. M., & Mooijaart, A. B. (1989). Choice of structural model via parsimony: a rationale based on precision. Psychological bulletin, 106(2), 315.
Brown, T. A. (2014). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. Guilford Publications.
Casillas Bueno, J. C., López Fernández, M. C., Pons Vigués, A., Baiges Giménez, R., and Meroño Cerdán, Á.. (2015). “La empresa familiar en España (2015).” Instituto de la Empresa Familiar. Accessed September 13, 2017. http://www.iefamiliar.com/upload/documentos/ubhiccx9o8nnzc7i.pdf.
Churchill Jr, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of marketing research, 64-73.
Cole, P. M. (1997). Women in family business. Family Business Review, 10(4), 353-371.
Constantinidis, C., & Nelson, T. (2009). Integrating succession and gender issues from the perspective of the daughter of family enterprise: A cross-national investigation. Management international/International Management/Gestiòn Internacional, 14(1), 43-54.
Curimbaba, F. (2002). The dynamics of women's roles as family business managers. Family Business Review, 15(3), 239-252.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Self?determination. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). Sage publications.
Dumas, C. (1989). Understanding of father-daughter and father-son dyads in family-owned businesses. Family Business Review, 2(1), 31-46.
Dumas, C. (1992). Integrating the daughter into family business management. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 41-56.
Dumas, C. (1998). Women's pathways to participation and leadership in the family-owned firm. Family Business Review, 11(3), 219-228.
Dumas, C., Dupuis, J. P., Richer, F., & St.-Cyr, L. (1995). Factors that influence the next generation's decision to take over the family farm. Family Business Review, 8(2), 99-120.
Eagly, A. H. (2003). More women at the top: The impact of gender roles and leadership style. In Gender—from Costs to Benefits (pp. 151-169). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological review, 109(3), 573.
Ely, R. J., Ibarra, H., & Kolb, D. M. (2011). Taking gender into account: Theory and design for women's leadership development programs. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(3), 474-493.
Englisch, P., Hall, C., Burgess, I., and Hara, M. (2015). “Women in Leadership: Family Business Advantage. Special Report Based on a Global Survey of the World’s Largest Family Businesses.” EYGM Limited. Accessed September 13, 2017. http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-women-in-leadership-the-family-business-advantage/$FILE/ey-women-in-leadership-the-family-business-advantage.pdf.
Gagné, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M. H., Aubé, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The Motivation at Work Scale: Validation evidence in two languages. Educational and psychological measurement, 70(4), 628-646.
Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of applied psychology, 93(1), 48.
Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. (2000). On the assessment of situational intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and emotion, 24(3), 175-213.
Hair, J. F. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson College Division. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207-219). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.
Handler, W. C. (1989). Methodological issues and considerations in studying family businesses. Family business review, 2(3), 257-276.
Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of management, 21(5), 967-988.
Hollander, B. S., & Bukowitz, W. R. (1990). Women, family culture, and family business. Family Business Review, 3(2), 139-151.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological methods, 3(4), 424.
Hunt, S. D. (1991). Modern Marketing Theory: Critical Issues in the Philosophy of Marketing Science. South-Western Pub.
Iannarelli, C. L. (1992). The Socialization of Leaders: A Study of Gender in Family Business. PhD diss., University of Pittsburgh.
Keating, N. C., & Little, H. M. (1997). Choosing the successor in New Zealand family farms. Family Business Review, 10(2), 157-171.
Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms.
Martinez Jimenez, R. (2009). Research on women in family firms: Current status and future directions. Family Business Review, 22(1), 53-64.
McDonald, S. (2011). What's in the “old boys” network? Accessing social capital in gendered and racialized networks. Social networks, 33(4), 317-330.
Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric Theory (1st ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nunnally, J. C., Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3d ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Otten-Pappas, D. (2013). The female perspective on family business successor commitment. Journal of Family Business Management, 3(1), 8-23.
Overbeke, K. K., Bilimoria, D., & Perelli, S. (2013). The dearth of daughter successors in family businesses: Gendered norms, blindness to possibility, and invisibility. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 4(3), 201-212.
Pascual García, C. (2013). Empresa familiar: mujer y sucesión.
Pérez López, J. A. (1991). Teoría de la acción humana en las organizaciones: la acción personal (Vol. 6). Ediciones Rialp.
Pérez López, J. A. (1993). Fundamentos de la dirección de empresas (Vol. 31). Ediciones Rialp.
Pérez López, J. A. (1997). Liderazgo. Ediciones Folio.
Rosenblatt, P. C. (1985). The Family in Business. Jossey-Bass.
Salganicoff, M. (1990). Women in family businesses: Challenges and opportunities. Family Business Review, 3(2), 125-137.
Schröder, E., Schmitt-Rodermund, E., & Arnaud, N. (2011). Career choice intentions of adolescents with a family business background. Family Business Review, 24(4), 305-321.
Sharma, P. (2004). An overview of the field of family business studies: Current status and directions for the future. Family business review, 17(1), 1-36.
Sharma, P., & Irving, P. G. (2005). Four bases of family business successor commitment: Antecedents and consequences. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(1), 13-33.
Stavrou, E. T. (1998). A four factor model: A guide to planning next generation involvement in the family firm. Family Business Review, 11(2), 135-142.
Steinbrecher, H., Hyde S., Pound, O., Bokpé, A., Rodwell, S. (2016). PwC Next Generation Survey 2016: The Female Perspective. A special release of the Next Generation Survey. Accessed September 13, 2017. http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/family-business-services/assets/Next_Generation_Survey_%20Female_Perspective_Final.pdf.
Tremblay, M. A., Blanchard, C. M., Taylor, S., Pelletier, L. G., & Villeneuve, M. (2009). Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Its value for organizational psychology research. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 41(4), 213.
Vera, C. F., & Dean, M. A. (2005). An examination of the challenges daughters face in family business succession. Family Business Review, 18(4), 321-345.
Wang, C. (2010). Daughter exclusion in family business succession: A review of the literature. Journal of family and economic issues, 31(4), 475-484.
Ward, J. (2016). Keeping the family business healthy: How to plan for continuing growth, profitability, and family leadership. Springer.
How to Cite
Copyright generates two different rights: moral rights and patrimonial rights that EJFB recognizes and respects. Moral rights are those relating to the recognition of the authorship. They are rights of a personal nature that are perpetual, inalienable, unseizable and imprescriptible as consequence of the indivisible union of the author and his/her work. Patrimonial rights are those that can be derived from the reproduction, distribution, adaptation or communication of the work, among others.
Authors who publish in EJFB retain the copyright of their work and grant the right of its first publication to the journal in open access. EJFB is authorized to reproduce, distribute, disseminate or communicate the work under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 License. This means that you are free to share and adapt this work under the following terms:
- Attribution — You must give appropriate credit to its author(s), which implie the right to be reconognized and cited correctly.
- NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.