Contenido principal del artículo

R Domínguez
Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio
JL Muñoz-Maté
Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio
Vol. 3 Núm. 1 (2014), Artículos, Páginas 1-9
Derechos de autor Cómo citar


La nutrición cobra una enorme importancia a la hora de asegurar un estado de salud y un rendimiento deportivo óptimo. Uno de los principales objetivos irá encaminado a asegurar un adecuado estado de las reservas corporales de hierro, dado que la deficiencia de hierro es la más frecuente y a que dicho elemento forma parte constituyente de la hemoglobina y mioglobina. Existe una relación directa entre los niveles de hemoglobina y el VO2máx, principal factor limitante del rendimiento de resistencia. Recientemente se ha descubierto una nueva hormona (hepcidina), cuyo efecto principal es la de actuar como regulador negativo en la absorción del hierro, al degradar la ferroportina. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido el de analizar los distintos trabajos que han estudiado la respuesta de la hepcidina al ejercicio como requisito para poder dar pautas que permitan regular los niveles de hepcidina en el deportista, previniendo posibles estados ferropénicos.

Citado por

Detalles del artículo


1. American College of Sport Medicine. Joint position statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sport Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32:2130-45.
2. Lukaski HC. Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition 2004; 20:632-44.
3. Bourre JM. The role of nutriotional factors on the structure and function of the brain: an update on dietary requirements. Rev Neurol 2004; 160: 767-92.
4. Nuviala RJ, Lapieza MG, Bernal E. Magnesium, Zinc, and Cooper status in Women involved in different Sports. Int J Sport Nutr 1999; 9:295-309.
5. Domínguez R. Hemólisis en el deporte: una revisión bibliográfica. Rev Rendimiento Dep 2013; 27(1).
6. Anker SD, Comin CJ, Filippatos G, Willenheimer R, Dickstein K, Drexler H, Ponikowski P, FAIR- HF Trial Investigators. Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency. New Eng J Med 2009; 361: 2436–48.
7. Schumacher YO, Schmid A, Granthwohl D, Bültermann D, Berg A. Hematological indices and iron status in athletes of various sports and performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 869-75.
8. Mercer KW, Densmore JJ. Hematologic disorders in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 2005; 24(3): 599-621.
9. Pallarés JG, Morán-Navarro R. Propuesta metodológica para el entrenamiento de la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria. J Sport Health Res 2012; 4(2):119-36.
10. Bisi MC, Stagni R, Gnudi G. Automatic detection of maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. Comput Biol Med. 2011;41:18–23
11. Levine BD. VO2máx: what do we know, and what do we still need to know? J Physiol 2008; 586(1):25-34.
12. Wagner PD. New ideas on limitations to VO2máx. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2000; 28(1):10-4.
13. Spurway NC, Ekblom B, Noakes TD, Wagner PD. What limits VO2máx? A symposium held at the BASES Conference, 6 September 2010. J Sports Sci 2012; 30(6): 517–31.
14. Lundby C, Thomsen JJ, Boushel R, Koskolou M, Warberg J, Calbet JA, Robach P. Erythropoietin treatment elevates haemoglobin concentration by increasing red cell volume and depressing plasma volume. J Physiol 2007; 578(1): 309-14.
15. Schmidt W, Prommer N. Impact of alterations in total hemoglobin mass on VO2máx. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2010; 38(2): 68-75.
16. Umbreit J. Iron deficiency: A concise review. Am J Hematol 2005; 78: 225-31.
17. Di Santolo M, Stel G, Gonano F, Cauci S. Anemia and iron status in Young fertile non-professional female athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008; 102: 703-9.
18. Tsalis G, Nikolaidis MG, Mougios V. Effects of iron intake through food supplementation on iron status and performance of healthy adolescent swimmers during a training season. Int J Sports Med 2004; 25: 306-13.
19. Reinke S, Taylor WR, Duda GM, Von Haehling S, Reinke P, Volk HD, Anker SD, Doehner W. Absolute and functional iron deficiency in professional athletes during training and recovery. Int J Cardiol 2012; 156: 186-91.
20. Rietjens GJ, Kuipers H, Hartgens F, Keizer HA. Red blood cell profile of elite Olympic distance triathletes. A three-year follow-up. Int J Sports Med 2002; 23(6): 391-6.
21. Ostojic S, Ahmetovic Z. Indicators of iron status in elite soccer playersduring the sport season. Int J Lab Hematol 2008; 31: 447-52.
22. Dellavalle DM, Haas JD. Iron status is associated with endurance performance and training in female rowers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012; 44(8): 1552-9.
23. Krause A, Neitz S, Magert HJ, Schulz A, Forssmann WG, Schulz-Knappe P, Adermann K. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity. FEBS Letters 2000; 480: 147-50.
24. Mujika I, Padilla S, Geyssant A, Chatard JC. Hematological responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers: relationship with performance. Arch Physiol Biochem 1998; 105(4): 379-85.
25. Pigeon C, Ilyin G, Courselaud B, Leroyer P, Turlin B, Brissot P, Loreal O. A new mouse liver-specific gene, encoding a protein homologous to human antimicrobial peptide hepcidina, is overexpressed during iron overload. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 7811-9.
26. Kroot JC, Tjalsma H, Fleming R, Swinkels DW. Hepcidin in human iron disorders: diagnostic implications. Clin Chem 2011; 57(12): 1650-69.
27. Schranz M, Bakry R, Creus M, Bonn G, Vogel W, Zoller H. Activation and inactivation of the iron hormone hepcidina: biochemical characterization of prohepcidin cleavage and sequential degradation to N-terminally truncated hepcidina isoforms. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2009; 43: 169-79.
28. Valore EV, Ganz T. Posttranslational processing of hepcidin in human hepatocytes is mediated by the prohormone convertase furin. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2008; 40: 132-38.
29. Collins JF, Wessling-Resnick M, Kutson MD. Hepcidin regulation of iron transport. J Nutr 2008; 138(11): 2284-8.
30. Wessling-Resnick M. Iron homeostasis and the inflammatory response. Ann Rev Nutr 2010; 30: 105-22.
31. Ward DM, Kaplan J. Ferroportin-mediated iron transport: expression and regulation. Biochem Biophys Acta 2012; 1823(9): 1426-33.
32. Shanmugam NK, Cherayil BJ. Serum-induced up-regulation of hepcidin expression involves the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013; 441(2): 383-6.
33. Ganz T. Hepcidin and iron metabolism, 10 years later. Blood 2012; 117(17): 4425-33.
34. Nemeth E, Ganz T. Regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin. Ann Rev Nutr 2006; 26: 323-42.
35. Yu-Quian, L, Yan-Zhong C, Bin Z, Hai-Tao W, Xiang L. Does hepatic hepcidina play an important role in exercise-associated anemia in rats? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2011; 21: 19-26.
36. Hashizume M, Uchiyama Y, Horai N, Tomosugi N, Mihara M, Tocilizumab A. A humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, improved anemia in monkey arthritis by suppressing IL-6 induced hepcidin production. Rheumatol Int 2009; 30: 917-23.
37. Song SN, Tomosugi N, Kawabata H, Ishikawa T, Nishikawa T, Yoshizaki K. Downregulation of hepcidin resulting from longterm treatment with an IL-6 receptor antibody (focilizumab) improves anemia of inflammation in multicentric Castleman disease. Blood 2010; 116(18): 3627-34.
38. Robson-Ansley P, Barwood M, Eglin C, Ansley L. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the interleukin-6 response to a 90-min run time trial. Internationa J Sports Physiolol Perform 2009; 4: 186-94.
39. Khalil A, Goodhand JR, Wahed M, Yeung J, Ali FR, Rampton DS. Efficay and tolerability of intravenous iron dextran and oral iron in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-matched study in clinical practice. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 23(11): 1029-35.
40. Banzet S, Sanchez H, Chapot R, Bigard X, Vaulont S, Koulmann N. Interleukin-6 contributes to hepcidina mRNA increase in response to exercise. Cytokine, 2012; 58(2): 158-61
41. Fisher CP. Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: What is the biological relevance? Exerc Immunol Rev 2006; 12: 6-33.
42. Roecker L, Meier-Buttermilch R, Bretchel L, Nemeth E, Ganz T. Iron-regulatory protein hepcidin is increased in female athletes after a marathon. Eur J Appl Physiol 2005; 95: 569-71.
43. Peeling P, Dawson W, Goodman C, Landers G, Wiegerenick ET, Swinkels DW, Trinder D. Effects of exercise on hepcidina response and iron metabolism during recovery. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2009c; 19(6): 583-97.
44. Peeling P, Dawson B, Goodman C, Landers G, Wiegerenick ET, Swinkels DW, Trinder D. Cumulative effects of consecutive running sessions on hemolysis, inflammation and hepcidin activity. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009; 106: 51-9.
45. Peeling P, Dawson B, Goodman C, Landers G, Trinder D. Athletic induced iron deficiency: new insights into the role of inflammation, cytokines and hormones. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008; 103: 381-91.
46. Peeling P, Dawson W, Goodman C, Landers G, Wiegerenick ET, Swinkels DW, Trinder D. Training Surface and Intensity: Inflammation, Hemolysis, and Hepcidin Expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41: 1138-45.
47. Troadec MB, Lainé F, Daniel V, Rochcongar P, Ropert M, Cabillic F, Perrin M, Morcet J, Loréal O, Olbina G, Westerman M, Nemeth E, Ganz T, Brissot P. Daily regulation of serum and urinary hepcidin is not influenced by submaximal cycling exercise in humans with normal iron metabolism. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 106: 435-44.
48. Sim M, Dawson B, Landers G, Swinkels DW, Tjasma H, Trinder D, Peeling P. Effect of exercise modality and intensity on postexercise interleukin-6 and hepcidina levels. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2013; 23: 178-86.
49. Robson-Ansley P, Walsh Q, Sala D. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on plasma interleukin-6, hepcidina and iron concentrations following prolonged exercise. Cytokine, 2011; 53(2): 196-200.
50. Sim M, Dawson B, Landers G, Swinkels DW, Tjalsma H, Trinder D, Peeling P. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidina levels. Eur J Appl Physiol 2012; 12: 1289-98.
51. Bishop NC, Walsh NP, Haines DL, Richards EE, Gleeson M. Pre-exercise carbohydrate status and immune responses to prolonged cycling: II Effect on plasma cytokine concentration. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2001; 11: 503-12.
52. Robson-Ansley P, Barwood M, Eglin C, Ansley L. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the interleukin-6 response to a 90-min run time trial. Internationa J Sports Physiolol Perform 2009; 4: 186-94.
53. Antosiewicz J, Kaczor JJ, Kasprowicz K, Laskowski R, Kujach S, Luszczyk M, Radziminski L, Ziemann E. Repeated “all out” interval exercise causes an increase in serum hepcidin concentration in both trained and untrained men. Cell Immunol 2013; 283(1-2): 12-7.
54. Newlin MK, Williams S, McNamara T, Tjalsma H, Swinkels DW, Haymes EM. The effects of acute exercise bouts on hepcidina in women. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2012; 22: 79-89.
55. Kasprovicz K, Ziemann E, Ratkowski W, Laskowski R, Kaczor JJ, Dadci R, Antosiewicz J. Running a 100-km-ultra-marathon induces an inflammatory response but does not raise the level of the plasma iron-regulatory protein hepcidina. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2013; 53: 533-7.
56. Sim M, Dawson B, Landers G, Swinkels DW, Tjasma H, Yeap BB, Trinder D, Peeling P. Oral contraception does not alter typical post-exercise interleukin-6 and hepcidin levels in females. J Sci Med Sports 2013; Nov 28 [Epub ahead of print].
57. Sim M, Dawson B, Landers G, Trinder D, Peeling P. Iron regulation in athletes: exploring the menstrual cycle and effects of different exercise modalities on hepcidin production. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2013; Sep 30 [Epub ahead of print].
58. Badenhorst CE, Dawson W, Goodman C, Sim M, Cox GR, Gore CJ, Tjalsma H, Swinkels DW, Peeling P. Influence of post-exercise hypoxic exposure on hepcidina response in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 2014; Feb 1 [Epub ahead of print].
59. Ma X, Patterson KJ, Gieschen KM, Bodary P. Are serum hepcidina levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners? Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2013; 23: 513-21.
60. Anschuetz S, Rodgers CD, Taylor AW. Meal Composition and Iron Status of Experienced Male and Female Distance Runners. J Exerc Sci Fitness 2010; 8(1): 25-33.
61. Vidal Miñana MC, Farré Rovira R. Evaluación antropométrica del estado nutricional y estimación de las ingestas de hierro y de vitamina C de mujeres posmenopáusicas y hombres mayores de 45 años. Nutr Hosp 2001; 15: 162-9.
62. Hallberg L. Bioavailability of dietary iron in man. Ann Rev Nutr 1981; 1: 123-47.
63. García-Casal MN, Layrisse M, Solano L, Baron MA, Arguello F, Llovera D. Vitamin A and beta-carotene can improve non-heme iron absorption from rice, wheat and corn by humans. J Nutr 1998; 128(3): 646-50.
64. Hallberg L, Rossander T, Hulten L, Brune M, Gleerup A. Inhibition of haem-iron absorption in man by calcium. Br J Nutr, 1993; 69: 533-40.
65. Escudero E, González P. La fibra dietética. Nutr Hosp 2006; 21(2): 61-72.
66. Vila M, Quintana M. Dietary iron intake in adolescent women in educational institutions. An Fac Med 2008; 69(3): 172-175.
67. Lombardi-Boccia G, Martinez-Domínguez B, Aguzzi A. Total heme and non-heme iron in raw and cooked meats. J Food Sci 2002; 67, 1738-41.
68. Purchas RW, Simcock DC, Knight TW, Wilkinson BHP. Variation in the form of iron in beef and lamb meat and losses of iron during cooking and storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 2003; 38: 827-37.
69. Heather J, Petrie MS, Strover EA, Craig A. Nutritional Concerns for the Child and Adolescent Competitor. Nutrition 2004; 20: 620-31.
70. Lin L, Valore EV, Nemeth E, Goodnough JB, Gabayan V, Ganz T. Iron transferrin regulates hepcidin synthesis in primary hepatocyte culture through hemojuvelin and BMP2/4. Blood 2007; 110: 2182-9.
71. Chicharro JL, Hoyos J, Gómez-Gallego F, Villa JG, Bandrés F, Celaya P, Jiménez F, Alonso JM, Córdova A, Lucia A. Mutations in the hereditary haemochromatosis gene HFE in professional endurance athletes. Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 418-21.
72. Nicolas G, Viatte L, Lou DQ, Bennoun M, Beaumont C, Kahn A, Andrews NC, Vaulont S. Constitutive hepcidin expression prevents iron overload in a mouse model of hemochromatosis. Nat Genet 2003; 34(1): 97-101.
73. Darshan D, Anderson GJ. Interacting signals in the control of hepcidina expression. Biometals 2009; 22(1): 77-87.
74. Talbot NP, Lakhal S, Smith TG, Privat C, Nickol AH, Rivera-Ch M, León-Verlarde F, Dorrington KL, Mole DR, Robbins PA. Regulation of hepcidin expression at high altitude. Blood 2012; 119(3): 857-60.