Crecimiento personal y satisfacción con la vida durante la COVID-19: perdón a uno mismo y compasión como correlatos

Palabras clave: compasión, ofensas interpersonales, satisfacción con la vida, crecimiento personal, perdón a uno mismo


COVID-19 es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa que afecta no solo a la salud física, sino también al bienestar mental. Dos variables que se han observado de manera significativa en personas que enfrentan situaciones difíciles y complejas, y que también se relacionan con un mayor crecimiento personal y satisfacción con la vida, son el perdón a uno mismo y la compasión por los demás. Por ello, mediante un estudio correlacional, nos planteamos examinar cómo el perdón a uno mismo y la compasión se asociaban con el crecimiento personal y la satisfacción con la vida en esta compleja situación provocada por la pandemia de COVID-19. En una muestra de participantes españoles (N = 329, rango de 18 a 83 años), los principales resultados mostraron que el perdón a uno mismo y la compasión se relacionaban positivamente con el crecimiento personal y la satisfacción con la vida, y que el perdón a uno mismo se asociaba con un mayor crecimiento personal y satisfacción con la vida a través de la compasión. En última instancia, se discuten estos hallazgos y sus posibles implicaciones para la práctica terapéutica.



Atienza, F. L., Pons, D., Balaguer, I., & García-Merita, M. (2000). Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida en adolescentes [Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in adolescents]. Psicothema, 12, 314–319.

Baer, R. A. (2010). Self-compassion as a mechanism of change in mindfulness- and acceptance-based treatments. In R. A. Baer (Eds.), Assessing mindfulness and acceptance processes in clients: Illuminating the theory and practice of change (pp. 135–153). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Batson, C. D., O’Quin, K., Fultz, J., Vanderplas, M., & Isen, A. M. (1983).Influence of self-reported distress and empathy on egoistic versus altruistic motivation to help. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 706–718.

Batson, C. D., Sager, K., Garst, E., Kang, M., Rubchinsky, K., & Dawson, K. (1997). Is empathy-induced helping due to self-other merging? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 495–509.

Bem, J. R., Strelan, P., & Proeve, M. (2021). Roads less travelled to self-forgiveness: Can psychological flexibility overcome chronic guilt/shame to achieve genuine self-forgiveness? Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 21, 203–211.

Bo, H. X., Li, W., Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., Wu, X., & Xiang, Y. T. (2021). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and attitude toward crisis mental health services among clinically stable patients with COVID-19 in China. Psychological Medicine, 51(6), 1052–1053.

Bohlmeijer, E. T., Westerhof, G. J., & Emmerick-de Jong, M. (2008). The effects of integrative reminiscence on meaning in life: Results of a quasi-experimental study. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 639–646.

Bryan, A. O., Theriault, J. L., & Bryan, C. J. (2015). Self-Forgiveness, posttraumatic stress, and suicide attempts among military personnel and veterans. Traumatology, 21(1), 40–46.

Carvalho, V. M., Garcia, J. R., Hansen, S., Ortiz, A., Rodrigo, T., Mora, J. V. R., & Ruiz, J. (2020). Tracking the COVID-19 Crisis with High-Resolution Transaction Data. Cambridge-INET Working Paper Series No. 2020/16.

Cornish, M. A., & Wade, N. G. (2015). A therapeutic model of self-forgiveness with intervention strategies for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 93(1), 96–104.

Danylyshyn, B. (2020). The peculiarities of economic crisis due to COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country: case of Ukraine. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18, 13–22.

Díaz, D., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Blanco, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Gallardo, I., Valle, C., & Van Dierendonck, D. (2006). Adaptación Española de las escalas de Bienestar Psicológico [Spanish adaptation of the scales of Psychological Wellbeing]. Psicothema, 18, 572–577.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bustamante, D., Mathy, R. M., Miller, P., & Lindholm, E. (1988). Differentiation of vicariously-induced emotional reactions in children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 237–246.

Fincham, F. D., & May, R. W. (2019). Self-forgiveness and well-being: Does divine forgiveness matter? The Journal of Positive Psychology, 14, 854–859.

Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327–358.

Gilbert P., & Woodyatt, L. (2017). An evolutionary approach to shame-based self-criticism, self-forgiveness, and compassion. In L. Woodyatt, E. Worthington Jr., M. Wenzel, & B.Griffin (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of self-forgiveness (pp. 29-41). Cham,Switzerland: Springer.

Gilo, T., Feigelman, W., Levi-Belz, Y. (2020). Forgive but not forget: From self-forgiveness to posttraumatic growth among suicide-loss survivors. Death Studies. Advance online publication.

Giovannoni, J. (2017). Perspectives: Compassion for others begins with loving-kindness toward self. Journal of Research in Nursing, 22, 173–178.

Goetz, J. L., Keltner, D., & Simon-Thomas, E. (2010). Compassion: An evolutionary analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 351–374.

Gudmundsdottir, D. G. (2013). The impact of economic crisis on happiness. Social Indicators Research, 110, 1083–1101.

Haidt, J. (2003). The moral emotions. In J. R. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp.852–870). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hill, P. L., & Allemand, M. (2010). Forgivingness and adult patterns of individual differences in environmental mastery and personal growth. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 245–250.

Hirsch, C., & Mouratoglou, V. (1999). Life review of an older adult with memory difficulties. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 261–265.<261::AID-GPS894>3.0.CO;2-Z

Hodgson, L. K., & Wertheim, E. H. (2007). Does good emotion management aid forgiving? Multiple dimensions of empathy, emotion management and forgiveness of self and others. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 931–949.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., Xiao, Y., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395 (10223), 497–506.

Kahneman, D., & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 1648–16493.

Kennedy, G. A. (1991). Aristotle 'On Rhetoric’: A Theory of Civic Discourse. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Keyes, C., Ryff, C., & Shmotkin, D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1007–1022.

Knight, J. R., & Hugenberger, G. P. (2007). On forgiveness. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 420–421.

Konstan, D. (2004). Aristotle on anger and the emotions: The strategies of status. In S. Braund & G. Most (Eds.), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen (Yale Classical Studies, pp. 99–120). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kurkowski, S., Heckel, M., & Volland-Schüssel, K. (2018). Wishes of nursing home residents for their dying. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie Geriatrie, 51, 910–918.

Jazaieri, H., McGonigal, K., Jinpa, T., Doty, J. R., Gross, J. J., & Goldin, P. R. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of compassion cultivation training: Effects on mindfulness, affect, and emotion regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 23–35.

Lee, E. E., Govind, T., Ramsey, M., Wu, T. C., Daly, R., Liu, J., … & Jeste, D. V. (2021). Compassion toward others and self-compassion predict mental and physical well-being: a 5-year longitudinal study of 1090 community-dwelling adults across the lifespan. Translational Psychiatry, 11, 397.

Lau, J. T. F., Yang, X., Tsui, H. Y., Pang, E., & Wing, Y. K. (2006). Positive mental health-related impacts of the SARS epidemic on the general public in Hong Kong and their associations with other negative impacts. The Journal of Infection, 53, 114–124.

Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active Weibo users. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 17, 2032.

Liu, N., Zhang, F., Wei, C., Jia, Y., Shang, Z., Sun, L., Wu, L., Sun, Z., Zhou, Y., Wang, Y., & Liu, W. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112921.

López, A., Sanderman, R., Ranchor, A., & Schroevers, M. (2018). Compassion for others and self-compassion: Levels, correlates, and relationship with psychological well-being. Mindfulness, 9(1), 325–331.

MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate

Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128.

Matsuyuki, M. (2011). An examination of the process of forgiveness and the relationship among state forgiveness, self-compassion, and psychological well-being experienced by Buddhists in the United States [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Kentucky: UKnowledge.

Mudgal, S., & Tiwari, G. K. (2015). Self-forgiveness and life satisfaction in people living with HIV/AIDS. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3, 101–108.

Navarro-Carrillo G., Beltrán-Morillas, A. M., Valor-Segura I., & Expósito F. (2017). ¿Qué se esconde detrás de la envidia? Aproximación desde una perspectiva psicosocial [What is behind envy? Approach from a psychosocial perspective]. Revista de Psicología Social/International Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 217–245.

Neff, K. D. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85–101.

Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity, 12, 160–176.

Neff, K. D., & Seppala, E. (2017). Compassion, well-being, and the hypoegoic self. In K. W. Brown & M. R. Leary (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of hypo-egoic phenomena (pp. 189–203). Oxford University Press.

Oveis, C., Horberg, E. J., & Keltner, D. (2010). Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self–other similarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 618–630.

Pandey, R., Tiwari, G. K., Pandey, R., Mandal, S. P., Mudgal, S., Parihar, P., Rai, P. K., Tiwari, A. S., & Shukla, M. (2020). The relationship between self-esteem and self-forgiveness: Understanding the mediating role of positive and negative self-compassion [Preprint]. Preprints.

Pelucchi, S., Paleari, F. G., Regalia, C., & Fincham, F. D. (2013). Self-forgiveness in romantic relationships: It matters to both of us. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 541–549.

Pelucchi, S., Paleari, F. G., Regalia, C., & Fincham, F. D. (2015). Self-forgiveness in romantic relationships: 2. Impact on interpersonal forgiveness. Family Science, 6(1), 181–190.

Peterson, S. J., Van Tongeren, D. R., Womack, S. D., Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., & Griffin, B. J. (2017). The benefits of self-forgiveness on mental health: Evidence from correlational and experimental research. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12, 159–168.

Pommier, E., Neff, K. D., & Tóth-Király, I. (2020). The development and validation of the Compassion Scale. Assessment, 27(1), 21–39.

Rudolph, U., Roesch, S., Greytemeyer, T., & Weiner, B. (2004). A meta‐analytic review of help giving and aggression from an attributional perspective: Contributions to a general theory of motivation. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 815–848.

Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110(1), 145–172.

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727. 3514.69.4.719

Sakiz, H., & Sariçam, H. (2015). Self-compassion and forgiveness: The protective approach against rejection sensitivity. International Journal of Human Behavioral Science, 1, 10–21.

Sandín, B., Valiente, R. M., García-Escalera, J., & Chorot, P. (2020). Impacto psicológico de la pandemia de COVID-19: Efectos negativos y positivos en población española asociados al periodo de confinamiento nacional [Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: Negative and positive effects in Spanish people during the mandatory national quarantine]. Journal of Psychopathology and Clinical Psychology/Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 25(1), 1–22.

Shahid, Z., Kalayanamitra, R., McClafferty, B., Kepko, D., Ramgobin, D., Patel, R., Aggarwal, C. S., Vunnam, R., Sahu, N., Bhatt, D., Jones, K., Golamari, R., & Jain, R. (2020). Covid-19 and older adults: What we know. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(5), 926–929.

Spanish Ministry of Health [Ministerio de Sanidad] (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) - 14 de marzo 2020. Retrieved from:

Sprecher S., Fehr B., & Zimmerman C. (2007). Expectation for mood enhancement as a result of helping: The effects of gender and compassionate love. Sex Roles, 56, 543–549.

Stangor, C. (2011). Research methods for the behavioral sciences. Mountain View, CA: Cengage.

Tamiolaki, A., & Kalaitzaki, A. E. (2020). “That which does not kill us, makes us stronger”: COVID-19 and Posttraumatic growth. Psychiatry Research. Advanced online publication.

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1–18.

Thompson, L. Y., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N., Billings, L. S., Heinze, L., Neufeld, J. E., Shorey, H. S., Roberts, J. C., & Roberts, D. E. (2005). Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of Personality, 73(2), 313–359.

Toussaint, L., Barry, M., Bornfriend, L., & Markman, M. (2014). Restore: The journey toward self-forgiveness: A randomized trial of patient education on self-forgiveness in cancer patients and caregivers. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20, 54–74.

Toussaint, L. L., Webb, J. R., & Hirsch, J. K. (2017). Self-forgiveness and health: A stress-and-coping model. In L. Woodyat, E. L. Worthington, Jr., M. Wenzel, & B. J. Griffin (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of self-forgiveness (pp. 87–99). Springer International Publishing AG.

Vargas, A. F., Hanson, T., Kraus, D., Drescher, K., & Foy, D. (2013). Moral injury themes in combat veterans’ narrative responses from the National Vietnam Veterans’ readjustment study. Traumatology, 19, 243–250.

Walker, D. F., & Gorsuch, R. L. (2002). Forgiveness within the Big Five personality model. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1127–1137.

Watson, J. (2018). Unitary caring science: The philosophy and praxis of nursing. Louisville, CO: University Press of Colorado.

Watson, M. J., Lydecker, J. A., Jobe, R. L., Enright, R. D., Gartner, A., Mazzeo, S. E., & Worthington Jr., E. L. (2012). Self-Forgiveness in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Eating Disorders, 20, 31–41.

Wayment, H. A., Bauer, J. J., & Sylaska, K. (2015). The Quiet Ego Scale: Measuring the compassionate self-identity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 999–1033.

Wild, D., Grove, A., Martin, M., Eremenco, S., McElroy, S., Verjee-Lorenz, A., & Erikson P. (2005). Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures: Report of the ISPOR task force for translation and cultural adaptation. Value in Health, 8, 94–104.

Woodyatt, L., & Wenzel, M. (2013). Self-forgiveness and restoration of an offender following an interpersonal transgression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32, 225–259.

Woodyatt, L., Wenzel, M., & Ferber, M. (2017). Two pathways to self-forgiveness: A hedonic path via self-compassion and a eudaimonic path via the reaffirmation of violated values. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(1), 515–536.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Langberg, D. (2012). Religious considerations and self-forgiveness in treating trauma in present and former soldiers. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 40, 274–288.

Cómo citar
Beltrán-Morillas, A. M., & Expósito, F. (2021). Crecimiento personal y satisfacción con la vida durante la COVID-19: perdón a uno mismo y compasión como correlatos. Escritos De Psicología - Psychological Writings, 14(2), 107-119.