Long working hours and exhaustion: A test of rumination as a mediator among mobile-flexible employees in activity-based offices

Palabras clave: trabajo basado en la actividad, trabajo móvil-flexible, rumiación, agotamiento


El presente estudio examina el efecto de la ampliación de las horas de trabajo sobre el agotamiento experimentado por la tarde en empleados móviles-flexibles que trabajan en oficinas de actividad flexible. En un estudio de diario de siete días, se anticipó que la rumiación diaria es un mediador, vinculado al agotamiento diario adicional en los individuos. En un cuestionario matutino, los empleados con flexibilidad de actividad completaron preguntas diarias sobre la relación entre las horas de trabajo prolongadas y el agotamiento. Treinta y tres empleados completaron preguntas diarias sobre la extensión de las horas de trabajo, la rumiación y el agotamiento. Los análisis multinivel de hasta 238 mediciones diarias revelaron que una extensión más intensa de las horas de trabajo predecía más rumiación, así como agotamiento. Tanto la prolongación de la jornada laboral como la rumiación predecían un mayor agotamiento. Una prueba de los efectos indirectos no mostró ninguna mediación desde la extensión de las horas de trabajo a través de la rumiación hasta el agotamiento. Cuando se diseñan modelos de trabajo móviles y flexibles, las horas extras son un riesgo. La prevención del agotamiento en el trabajo debería promover los procesos de recuperación, especialmente porque los nuevos modelos de trabajo pueden conducir a un aumento de la rumiación debido a una mayor responsabilidad personal de los empleados.


Appel-Meulenbroek, R., Voordt, T. v. d., Aussems, R., Arentze, T., & Le Blanc, P. (2020). Impact of activity-based workplaces on burnout and engagement dimensions. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 22(4), 279-296. https://doi.org/10.1108/jcre-09-2019-0041

Austin-Egole, I. S., Iheriohanma, E. B. J., & Nwokorie, C. (2020). Flexible working arrangements and organizational performance: An overview. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 25(5), 50-59. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2505065059

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017, Jul). Job demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. J Occup Health Psychol, 22(3), 273-285. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000056

Bell, A., Fairbrother, M., & Jones, K. (2018). Fixed and random effects models: making an informed choice. Quality & Quantity, 53(2), 1051-1074. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-018-0802-x

Berset, M., Elfering, A., Luthy, S., Luthi, S., & Semmer, N. K. (2011, Apr). Work stressors and impaired sleep: rumination as a mediator. Stress Health, 27(2), e71-82. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1337

Bluyssen, P. M., Aries, M., & van Dommelen, P. (2011). Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project. Building and Environment, 46(1), 280-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.07.024

Bodin Danielsson, C., & Theorell, T. (2019). Office employees’ perception of workspace contribution: A gender and office design perspective. Environment and Behavior, 51(9-10), 995-1026.

Bundesvereinigung der Deutschen, A. (2021, Mar 5). Arbeitsforschung 2021+: Welche Forschungsfragen bewegen die Arbeitgeber und wie sieht die Arbeitswelt der Zukunft aus? Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 75(1), 127-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41449-021-00240-3 (Arbeitsforschung 2021+: Welche Forschungsfragen bewegen die Arbeitgeber und wie sieht die Arbeitswelt der Zukunft aus?)

Buruck, G., Pfarr, A. L., Penz, M., Wekenborg, M., Rothe, N., & Walther, A. (2020, Nov 16). The Influence of Workload and Work Flexibility on Work-Life Conflict and the Role of Emotional Exhaustion. Behav Sci (Basel), 10(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110174

Clark, M. A., Smith, R. W., & Haynes, N. J. (2020, Nov). The Multidimensional Workaholism Scale: Linking the conceptualization and measurement of workaholism. J Appl Psychol, 105(11), 1281-1307. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000484

Colenberg, S., Jylhä, T., & Arkesteijn, M. (2020). The relationship between interior office space and employee health and well-being – a literature review. Building Research & Information, 49(3), 352-366. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2019.1710098

Costa, G., Åkerstedt, T., Nachreiner, F., Baltieri, F., Carvalhais, J., Folkard, S., & Silvério, J. (2004). Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project. Chronobiology international, 21(6), 831-844. https://doi.org/10.1081/LCBI-200035935

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied psychology, 86(3).

Demerouti, E., Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Vardakou, I., & Kantas, A. (2003). The Convergent Validity of Two Burnout Instruments. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 19(1), 12-23. https://doi.org/10.1027//1015-5759.19.1.12

Demerouti, E., Derks, D., Lieke, L., & Bakker, A. B. (2014). New ways of working: Impact on working conditions, work–family balance, and well-being. Springer.

Demerouti, E., Taris, T. W., & Bakker, A. B. (2007). Need for recovery, home–work interference and performance: Is lack of concentration the link? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71(2), 204-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2007.06.002

Donahue, E. G., Forest, J., Vallerand, R. J., Lemyre, P. N., Crevier-Braud, L., & Bergeron, E. (2012, Nov). Passion for work and emotional exhaustion: the mediating role of rumination and recovery. Appl Psychol Health Well Being, 4(3), 341-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2012.01078.x

Donaldson, S. I., & Grant-Vallone, E. J. (2002). Understanding self-report bias in organizational behavior research. Journal of business and Psychology, 17(2), 245-260.

Eggli, A., Romano-Pereira, D., & Elfering, A. (2021). Short-term effects of social stressors at work on rumination and physical symptoms in social workers. Industrial health.

Elfering, A., Kottwitz, M. U., & Semmer, N. K. (2021). Battery Discharge from Monday to Friday: Background Social Stress at Work is Associated with more Rapid Accumulation of Fatigue. Sleep and Vigilance, 5(1), 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41782-021-00127-7

Elfering, A., Kottwitz, M. U., Tamcan, Ö., Müller, U., & Mannion, A. F. (2018). Impaired sleep predicts onset of low back pain and burnout symptoms: evidence from a three-wave study. Psychology, health & medicine, 23(10), 1196-1210. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1479038v

Engelen, L., Chau, J., Young, S., Mackey, M., Jeyapalan, D., & Bauman, A. (2018). Is activity-based working impacting health, work performance and perceptions? A systematic review. Building Research & Information, 47(4), 468-479. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2018.1440958

Fritz, C., & Sonnentag, S. (2006). Recovery, well-being, and performance-related outcomes: The role of workload and vacation experiences. Journal of Applied psychology, 91(4).

Graf, A. (2018). Selbstmanagement-Kompetenz in Unternehmen nachhaltig sichern–Leistung, Wohlbefinden und Balance als Herausforderung. Springer Gabler.

Haapakangas, A., Hallman, D. M., Mathiassen, S. E., & Jahncke, H. (2019). The effects of moving into an activity-based office on communication, social relations and work demands – A controlled intervention with repeated follow-up. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2019.101341

Harris, R. (2016). New organisations and new workplaces. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 18(1), 4-16. https://doi.org/10.1108/jcre-10-2015-0026

Hodzic, S., Kubicek, B., Uhlig, L., & Korunka, C. (2021, Apr). Activity-based flexible offices: effects on work-related outcomes in a longitudinal study. Ergonomics, 64(4), 455-473. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1850882

Höge, T., & Hornung, S. (2013). Perceived flexibility requirements: Exploring mediating mechanisms in positive and negative effects on worker well-being. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36(3), 407-430. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831x13511274

James, O., Delfabbro, P., & King, D. L. (2021). A Comparison of Psychological and Work Outcomes in Open-Plan and Cellular Office Designs: A Systematic Review. SAGE Open, 11(1).

Jimenez, W. P., Hu, X., & Xu, X. V. (2021). Thinking About Thinking About Work: A Meta-Analysis of Off-Job Positive and Negative Work-Related Thoughts. Journal of business and Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-021-09742-7

Kattenbach, R., Demerouti, E., & Nachreiner, F. (2010). Flexible working times: effects on employees' exhaustion, work‐nonwork conflict and job performance. Career Development International, 15(3), 279-295. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431011053749

Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., de Bloom, J., Sianoja, M., Korpela, K., & Geurts, S. (2017, Oct). Linking boundary crossing from work to nonwork to work-related rumination across time: A variable- and person-oriented approach. J Occup Health Psychol, 22(4), 467-480. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000037

Kniffin, K. M., Narayanan, J., Anseel, F., Antonakis, J., Ashford, S. P., Bakker, A. B., Bamberger, P., Bapuji, H., Bhave, D. P., Choi, V. K., Creary, S. J., Demerouti, E., Flynn, F. J., Gelfand, M. J., Greer, L. L., Johns, G., Kesebir, S., Klein, P. G., Lee, S. Y., Ozcelik, H., Petriglieri, J. L., Rothbard, N. P., Rudolph, C. W., Shaw, J. D., Sirola, N., Wanberg, C. R., Whillans, A., Wilmot, M. P., & Vugt, M. V. (2021, Jan). COVID-19 and the workplace: Implications, issues, and insights for future research and action. Am Psychol, 76(1), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000716

Krause, A., Baeriswyl, S., Berset, M., Deci, N., Dettmers, J., Dorsemagen, C., Meier, W., Schraner, S., Stetter, B., & Straub, L. (2015). Selbstgefährdung als Indikator für Mängel bei der Gestaltung mobil-flexibler Arbeit: Zur Entwicklung eines Erhebungsinstruments. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 17(1), 49-59.

Kvande, E. (2007). Doing gender in flexible organizations.

Maas, C. J. M., & Hox, J. J. (2004). Robustness issues in multilevel regression analysis. Statistica Neerlandica, 58(2), 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0039-0402.2003.00252.x

Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload (Vol. 2).

Mohr, G., Müller, A., Rigotti, T., Aycan, Z., & Tschan, F. (2006). The Assessment of Psychological Strain in Work Contexts. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(3), 198-206. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.22.3.198

Nezlek, J. B. (2001). Multilevel random coefficient analyses of event-and interval-contingent data in social and personality psychology research. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 27(7), 771-785.

Nielsen, M. B., & Knardahl, S. (2020, May 1). The impact of office design on medically certified sickness absence. Scand J Work Environ Health, 46(3), 330-334. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3859

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Blair, E. W., & Sonja, L. (2008). Rethinking Rumination. Perspectives of Psychological Science, 3, 400-424.

Ohly, S., Sonnentag, S., Niessen, C., & Zapf, D. (2010). Diary Studies in Organizational Research. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(2), 79-93. https://doi.org/10.1027/1866-5888/a000009

Ojala, S., & Pyoria, P. (2018, Nov). Mobile knowledge workers and traditional mobile workers: Assessing the prevalence of multi-locational work in Europe. Acta Sociol, 61(4), 402-418. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699317722593

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003, Oct). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J Appl Psychol, 88(5), 879-903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. . Behavior research methods, instruments, & computers, 36(4), 717-731.

Rafnsdóttir, G. L., & Heijstra, T. M. (2013). Balancing Work-family Life in Academia: The Power of Time. Gender, Work & Organization, 20(3), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2011.00571.x

Richardson, A., Potter, J., Paterson, M., Harding, T., Tyler-Merrick, G., Kirk, R., Reid, K., & McChesney, J. (2017). Office design and health: a systematic review. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130(1467), 39.

Rudolph, C. W., Allan, B., Clark, M., Hertel, G., Hirschi, A., Kunze, F., Shockley, K., Shoss, M., Sonnentag, S., & Zacher, H. (2020). Pandemics: Implications for Research and Practice in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

Seddigh, A., Berntson, E., Bodin Danielson, C., & Westerlund, H. (2014). Concentration requirements modify the effect of office type on indicators of health and performance. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 167-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.01.009

Seidler, A., Thinschmidt, M., Deckert, S., Then, F., Hegewald, J., Nieuwenhuijsen, K., & Riedel-Heller, S. G. (2014). The role of psychosocial working conditions on burnout and its core component emotional exhaustion–a systematic review. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology, 9(1), 1-13.

Selig, J., & Preacher, K. (2008). Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation: An interactive tool for creating confidence intervals for indirect effects. Retrieved 29.05.2021 from http://quantpsy.org/

Sinclair, R. R., Allen, T., Barber, L., Bergman, M., Britt, T., Butler, A., Ford, M., Hammer, L., Kath, L., Probst, T., & Yuan, Z. (2020, Jun 1). Occupational Health Science in the Time of COVID-19: Now more than Ever. Occup Health Sci, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41542-020-00064-3

Skogland, M. A. C. (2017). The mindset of activity-based working. Journal of Facilities Management, 15(1), 62-75. https://doi.org/10.1108/jfm-05-2016-0016

Sonnentag, S. (2018). The recovery paradox: Portraying the complex interplay between job stressors, lack of recovery, and poor well-being. Research in Organizational Behavior, 38, 169-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2018.11.002

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2015). Recovery from job stress: The stressor-detachment model as an integrative framework. Journal of organizational behavior, 36(S1), S72-S103. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1924

van der Voordt, T. J. M. (2004). Productivity and employee satisfaction in flexible workplaces. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 6(2), 133-148. https://doi.org/10.1108/14630010410812306

Wang, H. (2018). The effects of social support and coping strategies on job stress and burnout. Available at SSRN 3161858.

Watkins, E. R. (2008, Mar). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychol Bull, 134(2), 163-206. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.2.163

Weigelt, O., Gierer, P., & Syrek, C. J. (2019, Aug 20). My Mind is Working Overtime-Towards an Integrative Perspective of Psychological Detachment, Work-Related Rumination, and Work Reflection. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16(16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162987
Cómo citar
Wütschert, M. S., Pereira, D., & Elfering, A. (2022). Long working hours and exhaustion: A test of rumination as a mediator among mobile-flexible employees in activity-based offices. Escritos De Psicología - Psychological Writings, 15(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.24310/espsiescpsi.v15i1.12876
Informes de investigación