Potencial terapéutico de los alucinógenos en las cefaleas: una revisión teórica

Alucinógenos y cefaleas

Palabras clave: alucinógenos, migraña, cefalea en racimos, psilocibina, LSD, ketamina

Resumen

Los alucinógenos incluyen a un grupo heterogéneo de sustancias que provocan cambios en la percepción sensorial, el pensamiento y la consciencia. El potencial terapéutico de diversas drogas alucinógenas está recibiendo un interés creciente en los últimos años. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión bibliográfica centrada en el posible uso de los alucinógenos (LSD, psilocibina y ketamina) en el tratamiento y prevención de las cefaleas. Para ello, se ha realizado una
búsqueda (sin límite temporal) en las bases de datos de Web of Sciences, Scopus y Pubmed, además de una búsqueda manual en las referencias de los artículos. Los resultados constatan la eficacia del LSD, especialmente a nivel profiláctico, mientras que la ketamina podría ser de utilidad para abortar los ataques agudos y la psilocibina ha demostrado ser efectiva en ambos aspectos. Los estudios existentes se han llevado a cabo principalmente en pacientes con migraña y con cefalea en racimos, entre otros tipos de cefaleas. Asimismo, se señalan diversas limitaciones metodológicas que pueden dificultar la generalización de los resultados, y se sugiere la necesidad de realizar futuras investigaciones en este campo emergente.

Referencias

Afridi, S. K., Giffin, N. J., Kaube, H., & Goadsby, P. J. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of intranasal ketamine in migraine with prolonged aura. Neurology, 80(7), 642-647. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182824e66

Andersson, M., Persson, M., & Kjellgren, A. (2017). Psychoactive substances as a last resort—a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches. Harm reduction journal, 14(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-017-0186-6

Bakhsh, A., Alnashri, M., Alawami, F., Aseel, R., Almaghthawi, M., Alrahaili, G., Bifari, A., & Algethami, H. (2021). Changes in hemodynamic parameters with the use of etomidate versus ketamine induction in the emergency department. Signa Vitae, 17(2), 85-92. https://doi.org/10.22514/sv.2021.005

Barnett, B. S. & Greer, G. R. (2021). Psychedelic Psychiatry and the Consult-Liaison Psychiatrist: A Primer. Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. (en prensa) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaclp.2020.12.011

Benish, T., Villalobos, D., Love, S., Casmaer, M., Hunter, C. J., Summers, S. M., & April, M. D. (2019). The THINK (Treatment of Headache with Intranasal Ketamine) trial: a randomized controlled trial comparing intranasal ketamine with intravenous metoclopramide. The Journal of emergency medicine, 56(3), 248-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.12.007

Bilhimer, M. H., Groth, M. E., & Holmes, A. K. (2020). Ketamine for Migraine in the Emergency Department. Advanced emergency nursing journal, 42(2), 96-102. https://doi.org/10.1097/TME.0000000000000296

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Erritzoe, D., Williams, T., Stone, J. M., Reed, L. J., Colasanti, A., Tyacke, R.J., Leech, R., Malizia, A.L., Murphy, K., Hobden, P., Evans, J., Feilding, A., Wise, R.G., & Nutt, D. J. (2012). Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(6), 2138-2143. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119598109

Carhart-Harris, R. L., Leech, R., Erritzoe, D., Williams, T. M., Stone, J. M., Evans, J., Sharp, D.J., Feilding, A., Wise, R.G., & Nutt, D. J. (2013). Functional connectivity measures after psilocybin inform a novel hypothesis of early psychosis. Schizophrenia bulletin, 39(6), 1343-1351. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbs117

Charles, A. C. y& Baca, S. M. (2013). Cortical spreading depression and migraine. Nature Reviews Neurology, 9(11), 637. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2013.192

Coste, J., Voisin, D. L., Luccarini, P., & Dallel, R. (2008). A role for wind-up in trigeminal sensory processing: intensity coding of nociceptive stimuli in the rat. Cephalalgia, 28(6), 631-639. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01568.x

De Coo, I. F., Naber, W. C., Wilbrink, L. A., Haan, J., Ferrari, M. D., & Fronczek, R. (2019). Increased use of illicit drugs in a Dutch cluster headache population. Cephalalgia, 39(5), 626-634. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102418804160

De Gregorio, D., Enns, J. P., Nuñez, N. A., Posa, L., & Gobbi, G. (2018). D-Lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and other classic hallucinogens: mechanism of action and potential therapeutic applications in mood disorders. Progress in brain research, 242, 69-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.07.008

Donnet, A., Lanteri-Minet, M., Guegan-Massardier, E., Mick, G., Fabre, N., Géraud, G., Lucas, C., Navez, M., & Valade, D. (2007). Chronic cluster headache: a French clinical descriptive study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 78(12), 1354-1358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2006.112037

Etchison, A. R., Bos, L., Ray, M., McAllister, K. B., Mohammed, M., Park, B., Phan C. V., & Heitz, C. (2018). Low-dose ketamine does not improve migraine in the emergency department: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 19(6), 952. https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2018.8.37875

Flanagan, T. W. & Nichols, C. D. (2018). Psychedelics as anti-inflammatory agents. International Review of Psychiatry, 30(4), 363-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2018.1481827

Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of psychopharmacology, 22(6), 621-632. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881108094300

Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology, 187(3), 268-283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5

Guirimand, F., Dupont, X., Brasseur, L., Chauvin, M., & Bouhassira, D. (2000). The effects of ketamine on the temporal summation (wind-up) of the RIII nociceptive flexion reflex and pain in humans. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 90(2), 408-414. https://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-200002000-00031

Han, S. Y., Jin, H. C., Yang, W. D., Lee, J. H., Cho, S. H., Chae, W. S., Lee, J.S., & Kim, Y. I. (2013). The effect of low-dose ketamine on post-caesarean delivery analgesia after spinal anesthesia. The Korean journal of pain, 26(3), 270. https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2013.26.3.270

Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). (2013). The international classification of headache disorders, (beta version). Cephalalgia, 33(9), 629-808. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0333102413485658

Hoffmann, J., & Charles, A. (2018). Glutamate and its receptors as therapeutic targets for migraine. Neurotherapeutics, 15(2), 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-018-0616-5

Johnson, M. W., Sewell, R. A., & Griffiths, R. R. (2012). Psilocybin dose-dependently causes delayed, transient headaches in healthy volunteers. Drug and alcohol dependence, 123(1-3), 132-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.029

Johnson, S. y Black, Q. C. (2020). Can Psychedelics Alleviate Symptoms of Cluster Headache and Accompanying Mental Health Problems? A Case Report Involving Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 52(4), 319-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2020.1762023

Karst, M., Halpern, J. H., Bernateck, M., & Passie, T. (2010). The non-hallucinogen 2-bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide as preventative treatment for cluster headache: an open, non-randomized case series. Cephalalgia, 30(9), 1140-1144. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102410363490

Kometer, M., Schmidt, A., Jäncke, L., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2013). Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(25), 10544-10551. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3007-12.2013

Krusz, J., Cagle, J., & Hall, S. (2008a). (219) Intramuscular (IM) ketamine for treating headache and pain flare-ups in the clinic. The Journal of Pain, 9(4), 30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.01.140

Krusz, J., Cagle, J., & Hall, S. (2008b). (218) Efficacy of IV ketamine in treating refractory migraines in the clinic. The Journal of Pain, 9(4), 30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.01.139

Krusz, J., Cagle, J., & Scott-Krusz, V. (2010). (268) IV ketamine treatment for multiple headache and pain disorders. The Journal of Pain, 11(4), S43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2010.01.179

Lauritsen, C., Mazuera, S., Lipton, R. B., & Ashina, S. (2016). Intravenous ketamine for subacute treatment of refractory chronic migraine: a case series. The journal of headache and pain, 17(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-016-0700-3

Leone, M., Franzini, A., Broggi, G., & Bussone, G. (2006). Hypothalamic stimulation for intractable cluster headache: long-term experience. Neurology, 67(1), 150-152. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000223319.56699.8a

Ling, T. M., & Buckman, J. (1960). The Use of Lysergic Acid in Individual Psychotherapy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 53(11), 927-929.

Mash, D.C., Duque, L., Page, B., & Allen-Ferdinand, K. (2018). Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9(529), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00529

McGeeney, B. E. (2013). Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 53(3), 447-458. https://doi.org/10.1111/head.12025

Moisset, X., Giraud, P., Meunier, E., Condé, S., Périé, M., Picard, P., Picard, P, Pereira, B, Ciampi de Andrade, C, Clavelou, P., & Dallel, R. (2020). Ketamine‐Magnesium for Refractory Chronic Cluster Headache: A Case Series. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 60(10), 2537-2543. https://doi.org/10.1111/head.14005

Muir, W. W. (2010). NMDA receptor antagonists and pain: ketamine. Veterinary Clinics: Equine Practice, 26(3), 565-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2010.07.009

Nicolodi, M. y Sicuteri, F. (1995). Exploration of NMDA receptors in migraine: therapeutic and theoretic implications. International journal of clinical pharmacology research, 15(5-6), 181-189.

Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review. CNS neuroscience & therapeutic, 14(4), 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x

Peatfield, R., & Villalón, C. M. (2013). Headache after exposure to ‘date-rape’ drugs. SpringerPlus, 2(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-39

Peltoniemi, M. A., Hagelberg, N. M., Olkkola, K. T., & Saari, T. I. (2016). Ketamine: a review of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in anesthesia and pain therapy. Clinical pharmacokinetics, 55(9), 1059-1077. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-016-0383-6

Pomeroy, J. L., Marmura, M. J., Nahas, S. J., & Viscusi, E. R. (2016). Ketamine infusions for treatment refractory headache. Headache, 57(2), 276-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/head.13013

Preedy, V. R. (ed.). (2016). Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse. Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects. Academic Press.

Price, D. D., Staud, R., Robinson, M. E., Mauderli, A. P., Cannon, R., & Vierck, C. J. (2002). Enhanced temporal summation of second pain and its central modulation in fibromyalgia patients. Pain, 99(1), 49-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(02)00053-2

Prisinzano, T. E. (2009). Natural products as tools for neuroscience: discovery and development of novel agents to treat drug abuse. Journal of natural products, 72(3), 581-587. https://doi.org/10.1021/np8005748

Robbins, M. S. (2013). The psychiatric comorbidities of cluster headache. Current pain and headache reports, 17(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-012-0315-6

Sarchielli, P., Di Filippo, M., Nardi, K., & Calabresi, P. (2007). Sensitization, glutamate, and the link between migraine and fibromyalgia. Current pain and headache reports, 11(5), 343-351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-007-0216-2

Schindler, E. A., Gottschalk, C. H., Weil, M. J., Shapiro, R. E., Wright, D. A., & Sewell, R. A. (2015). Indoleamine hallucinogens in cluster headache: results of the Clusterbusters medication use survey. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 47(5), 372-381. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2015.1107664

Schindler, E. A., Sewell, R. A., Gottschalk, C. H., Luddy, C., Flynn, L. T., Lindsey, H., Pittman, B.P., Cozzi, N.V., & D’Souza, D. C. (2020). Exploratory Controlled Study of the Migraine-Suppressing Effects of Psilocybin. Neurotherapeutics. (En prensa) https://doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-00962-y

Schindler, E. A., Wallace, R. M., Sloshower, J. A., & D’Souza, D. C. (2018). Neuroendocrine associations underlying the persistent therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 177. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00177

Schwenk, E. S., Dayan, A. C., Rangavajjula, A., Torjman, M. C., Hernandez, M. G., Lauritsen, C. G., Siberstein, S. D., Young, W., & Viscusi, E. R. (2018). Ketamine for refractory headache: a retrospective analysis. Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine, 43(8), 875-879. http://doi.org/10.1097/AAP.0000000000000827

Sempere, A. P., Berenguer-Ruiz, L., & Almazán, F. (2006). Respuesta de la cefalea en racimos crónica a la psilocibina. Revista de Neurología, 43(9), 571-572.

Sewell, R. A., Halpern, J. H., & Pope, H. G. (2006). Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD. Neurology, 66(12), 1920-1922. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000219761.05466.43

Sicuteri, F. (1963). Prophylactic treatment of migraine by means of lysergic acid derivatives. Triangle, 6(3), 116-125.

Snow, O. (2003). LSD. Thoth Press.

Tiger, M., Veldman, E. R., Ekman, C. J., Halldin, C., Svenningsson, P., & Lundberg, J. (2020). A randomized placebo-controlled PET study of ketamine´ s effect on serotonin 1B receptor binding in patients with SSRI-resistant depression. Translational psychiatry, 10(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0844-4

Turner, A. L., Shandley, S., Miller, E., Perry, M. S., & Ryals, B. (2020). Intranasal ketamine for abortive migraine therapy in pediatric patients: a single-center review. Pediatric neurology, 104, 46-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.10.007

Tyler, M. W., Yourish, H. B., Ionescu, D. F., & Haggarty, S. J. (2017). Classics in chemical neuroscience: ketamine. ACS chemical neuroscience, 8(6), 1122-1134. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00074

Yamin‐Pasternak, S. (2010). Shroom: A Cultural History of the Magic Mushroom. Ethnobiology Letters, 1, 26-27.

Whelan, A., & Johnson, M. I. (2018). Lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin for the management of patients with persistent pain: a potential role?. Pain management, 8(3), 217-229. https://doi.org/10.2217/pmt-2017-0068

Winter, J. C., Rice, K. C., Amorosi, D. J., & Rabin, R. A. (2007). Psilocybin-induced stimulus control in the rat. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 87(4), 472-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2007.06.003

Zangouei, A., Zahraei, S. A. H., Sabertanha, A., Nademi, A., Golafshan, Z., & Zangoue, M. (2019). Effect of low-dose intravenous ketamine on prevention of headache after spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing elective cesarean section: A double-blind clinical trial study. Anesthesiology and pain medicine, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.5812/aapm.97249

Zitek, T., Gates, M., Pitotti, C., Bartlett, A., Patel, J., Rahbar, A., Forred W., Sontgerath, J.S., & Clark, J. M. (2018). A comparison of headache treatment in the emergency department: prochlorperazine versus ketamine. Annals of emergency medicine, 71(3), 369-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.08.063

Publicado
2021-06-15
Cómo citar
Collantes, L., & Navarro, J. F. (2021). Potencial terapéutico de los alucinógenos en las cefaleas: una revisión teórica: Alucinógenos y cefaleas. Escritos De Psicología - Psychological Writings, 14(1), 30-44. https://doi.org/10.24310/espsiescpsi.v14i1.13657
Sección
Artículos teóricos o de revisión