International business & family business: Potential dialogue between disciplines

  • José C. Casillas Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Seville, Spain
  • Ana M. Moreno-Menéndez Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Seville, Spain

Abstract

25 years ago, Gallo and Sveen (1991) published the first paper about internationalization of family businesses. Since then, research in this area has steadily increased. In this article, I review the evolution of the literature that has combined international business and family firms (102 papers from 1991 to 2015), and I identify six promising areas for research through a dialogue between both disciplines: (1) mission and objectives of firms: the meaning of “performance”, (2) corporate government and international business, (3) attitude to risk and internationalization patterns, (4) timing, pace and speed of internationalization, (5) cross-cultural management, and (6) network perspective and social capital of firms.

References

Abdellatif, M., Amann, B., & Jaussaud, J. (2010). Family versus nonfamily business: A comparison of international strategies. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1, 108–116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2010.04.004

Acedo, F. J. Casillas, J. C., & Moreno, A. M. (2008). The internationalization of family business: an explanatory analysis. Management International, 12(1), 77–90.

Alkaabi, S. K., & Dixon, C. (2014). Factors affecting internationalization decision making in family, businesses: An integrated literature review. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 19(2), 53–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9774/GLEAF.3709.2014.ap.00005

Arregle, J. -L., Naldi, L., Nordqvist, M., & Hitt, M. A. (2012). Internationalization of family-controlled firms: A study of the effects of external involvement in governance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 1115–1143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00541.x

Banalieva, E. R., & Eddleston, K. A. (2011). Home-region focus and performance of family firms: The role of family vs non-family leaders. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 1060–1072. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2011.28

Basly, S. (2007). The internationalization of family SME: An organizational learning and knowledge development perspective. Baltic Journal of Management, 2, 154–180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17465260710750973

Benito-Hernandez, S., Priede-Bergamini, T., & Lopez-Cozar-Navarro, C. (2014). Factors determining exportation and internationalization in family businesses: The importance of debt. South African Journal of Business Management, 45(1), 12–25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v45i1.114

Bhaumik, S. K., Driffield, N., & Pal, S. (2010). Does ownership structure of emerging-market firms affect their outward FDI? The case of the Indian automotive and pharmaceutical sectors, Journal of International Business Studies, 41, 437–450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.52

Bobillo, A. M., Rodríguez-Sanz, J. A., & Tejerina-Gaite, F. (2013). Shareholder Activism and Internationalization in the Family Firm. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 14(5), 867–885. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3846/16111699.2012.707621

Boter, H. & Holmquist, C. (1996). Industry characteristics and internationalization processes in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 11, 471–487. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(96)89166-X

Boyd, B., Goto, T., & Hollensen, S. (2010). Internationalisation of family businesses—Evidences from joint venture formations at Danfoss. International Journal of Management Practice, 4, 253–272. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMP.2010.036829

Brydon, K., & Dana, L. P. (2011). Globalisation and firm structure: Comparing a family-business and a corporate block holder in the New Zealand seafood industry. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 4, 206–220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGSB.2011.042254

Calabrò, A., & Mussolino, D., (2013). How do boards of directors contribute to family SME export intensity? The role of formal and informal governance mechanisms. Journal of Management Governance, 17, 363–403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10997-011-9180-7

Calabrò, A., Mussolino, D., & Huse, M. (2009). The role of board of directors in the internationalization process of small and medium sized family businesses. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 3, 393–411. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGSB.2009.032259

Calabrò, A., Torchia, M., Pukall, T., & Mussolino, D. (2012). The influence of ownership structure and board strategic involvement on international sales: The moderating effect of family involvement. International Business Review, 22, 509–523. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2012.07.002

Carr, C., & Bateman, S. (2009). International strategy configurations of the world's top family firms. Management International Review, 49, 733–758. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-009-0018-3

Casillas, J. C., & Acedo, F. J. (2005). Internationalization of Spanish family SMEs: An analysis of family involvement. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 1, 134–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGSB.2005.008010

Casillas, J. C., Moreno, A. M., & Acedo, F. J. (2010). Internationalization of family businesses: A theoretical model based on international entrepreneurship perspective. Global Management Journal, 2(2), 16–33.

Castagnoli, A. (2014). Across borders and beyond boundaries: How the Olivetti Company became a multinational. Business History, 56(8), 1281–1311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2013.876534

Cerrato, D., & Piva, M. (2010). The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: the effect of family management, human capital and foreign ownership. Journal of Management & Governance, 16, 617–644. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10997-010-9166-x

Cesinger, B., Bouncken, R., Fredrich, V., & Kraus, S. (2014). The alchemy of family enterprises’ internationalization: dexterous movers or prodigal laggards? European Journal of International Management, 8, 671–696. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/EJIM.2014.064902

Chen, H. L. (2011). Internationalization in Taiwanese family firms. Global Journal of Business Research, 5(4), 15–23.

Chen, H. L., Hsu, W. T., & Chang, C. Y. (2014). Family Ownership, Institutional Ownership, and Internationalization of SMEs. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(4), 771–789. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12031

Cheong, K. C., Lee, P. P., & Lee, K. H. (2015). The internationalization of family firms: case histories of two Chinese overseas family firms. Business History, 57(6), 841–861. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2014.982106

Claver, E., Rienda, L., & Quer, D. (2007). The internationalization process in family firms: Choice of market entry strategies. Journal of General Management, 33(1), 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/030630700703300101

Claver, E., Rienda, L., & Quer, D. (2008). Family firms risk perception: Empirical evidence on the internationalization process. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15, 457–471. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000810892283

Claver, E., Rienda, L., & Quer, D. (2009). Family firms’ international commitment: The influence of family-related factors. Family Business Review, 22, 125–135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486508330054

Colli, A., García-Canal, E., & Guillén, M. (2013), Family character and international entrepreneurship: A historical comparison of Italian and Spanish ‘new multinationals’, Buisness History, 55(1), 119–138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2012.687536

Crick, D., Bradshaw, R., & Chaudhry, S. (2006). “Successful” internationalizing UK family and non-family-owned firms: A comparative study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13, 498–512. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000610705714

Davis, P. S., & Harveston, P. D. (2000). Internationalization and organizational growth: The impact of internet usage and technology involvement among entrepreneur led family businesses. Family Business Review, 13, 107–120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2000.00107.x

Denicolai, S., Hagen, B., & Pisoni, A. (2015). Be international or be innovative? Be both? The role of the entrepreneurial profile. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 13, 390–417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-015-0143-y

Eberhard, M., & Craig, J. (2013). The evolving role of organizational and personal networks in international market venturing. Journal of World Business, 48, 385–397. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2012.07.022

Erdener, C., & Shapiro, D. M. (2005). The internationalization of Chinese family enterprises and Dunning's eclectic MNE paradigm. Management and Organization Review, 3, 411–436. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00021.x

Fernández, Z., & Nieto, M. J. (2005). Internationalization strategy of small and medium-sized family businesses: Some influential factors. Family Business Review, 18, 77–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2005.00031.x

Fernández, Z., & Nieto, M. J. (2006). Impact of ownership on the international involvement of SMEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 340–351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400196

Fuentes-Lombardo, G., & Fernandez-Ortiz, R. (2010). Strategic alliances in the internationalization of family firms: An exploratory study on the Spanish wine industry. Advances in Management, 3(6), 45–54.

Gallo, M. A., & Pont, C. G. (1996). Important factors in family business internationalization. Family Business Review, 9, 45–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.1996.00045.x

Gallo, M. A., & Sveen, J. (1991). Internationalizing the family business: Facilitating and restraining factors. Family Business Review, 4, 181–190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.1991.00181.x

George, G., Wiklund, J., & Zahra, S. A. (2005). Ownership and internationalization of small firms. Journal of Management, 31(2), 210–233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206304271760

Geppert, M., Dorrenbacher, C., Gammelgaard, J., & Taplin, I. (2013). Managerial Risk-taking in International Acquisitions in the Brewery Industry: Institutional and Ownership Influences Compared. British Journal of Management, 24, 316–332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00806.x

Graves, C., & Shan, Y. G. (2014). An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Internationalization on the Performance of Unlisted Family and Nonfamily Firms in Australia. Family Business Review, 27(2), 142–160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486513491588

Graves, C., & Thomas, J. (2004). Internationalization of the family business: A longitudinal perspective. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 1(1), 7–27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGSB.2004.005615

Graves, C., & Thomas, J. (2006). Internationalization of Australian family businesses: A managerial capabilities perspective. Family Business Review, 19, 207–224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2006.00066.x

Graves, C., & Thomas, J. (2008). Determinants of the internationalization pathways of family firms: An examination of family influence. Family Business Review, 21, 151–167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2008.00119.x

Hiebl, M.R.W. (2015). Applying the four-eyes principle to management decisions in the manufacturing sector: Are large family firms one-eye blind? Management Research Review, 38(3), 264–282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-11-2013-0254

Holt, D. T. (2012). Strategic decisions within family firms: Understanding the controlling family's receptivity to internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 1145–1151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00542.x

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2010a). The internationalization of family businesses: A review of extant research. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1, 97–107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2010.04.001

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2010b). Internationalization pathways of family SMEs: Psychic distance as a focal point. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17, 437–454. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001011068725

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2011a). International opportunity recognition among small and medium-sized family firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 49, 490–514. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2011.00326.x

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2011b). Network ties in the international opportunity recognition of family SMEs. International Business Review, 20, 440–453. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2010.08.002

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2011c). Social capital in relation to the foreign market entry and post-entry operations of family SMEs. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 9, 133–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-010-0072-8

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2012a). Internationalization pathways among family-owned SMEs. International Marketing Review, 29, 496–518. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331211260359

Kontinen, T., & Ojala, A. (2012b). Social capital in the international operations of family SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(1), 39–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001211196398

Kuo, A., Kao, M.-S., Chang, Y.-C., & Chiu, C.-F. (2012). The influence of international experience on entry mode choice: Difference between family and non-family firms. European Management Journal, 30, 248–263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2012.03.008

Kyvik, O, Saris, W., Bonet, E., & Felício, J. A. (2013): The internationalization of small firms: The relationship between the globalmindset and firms’ internationalization behavior. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11, 172–195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-013-0105-1

Li, J. (2013). The internationalization of entrepreneurial firms from emerging economies: The roles of institutional transitions and market opportunities. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 158–171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-013-0106-0

Liang, X. Y., Wang, L. H., & Cui, Z. Y. (2014). Chinese Private Firms and Internationalization Effects of Family Involvement in Management and Family Ownership. Family Business Review, 27(2) 126–141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486513480885

Lien, Y. C., & Filatotchev, I. (2015). Ownership characteristics as determinants of FDI location decisions in emerging economies. Journal of World Business, 50, 637–650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2014.09.002

Lin, W. T. (2012). Family ownership and internationalization processes: Internationalization pace, internationalization scope, and internationalization rhythm. European Management Journal, 30(1), 47–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2011.10.003

Lin, W. T. (2014). Founder-key leaders, group-level decision teams, and the international expansion of business groups: Evidence from Taiwan. International Marketing Review, 31(2), 129–154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-07-2012-0120

Lu, J. W., Liang, X., Shan, M., & Liang, X. (2015). Internationalization and Performance of Chinese Family Firms: The Moderating Role of Corporate Governance. Management and Organization Review, 645–678. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/mor.2015.32

Majocchi, A., & Strange, R. (2012). International Diversification The Impact of Ownership Structure, the Market for Corporate Control and Board Independence. Management International Review, 52(6), 879–900. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-012-0148-x

Menéndez-Requejo, S. (2005). Growth and internationalisation of family businesses. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 1, 122–133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGSB.2005.008009

Meneses, R., Coutinho, R., & Pinho, J. C., (2014). The impact of succession on family business internationalization. The successors’ perspective. Journal of Family Business Management, 4(1) 24–45.

Merino, F., Monreal-Perez, J., & Sanchez-Marin, G. (2015): Family SMEs’ Internationalization: Disentangling the Influence of Familiness on Spanish Firms’ Export Activity. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 1164–1184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12111

Mitter, C., Duller, C., Feldbauer-Durstmuller, B., & Kraus S. (2014) Internationalization of family firms: the effect of ownership and governance. Review Management Science, 8, 1–28 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-012-0093-x

Moya, M. F. (2010). A family-owned publishing multinational: The Salvat company (1869–1988). Business History, 52, 453–470. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791003721969

Muñoz-Bullón, F., & Sanchez-Bueno, M. J. (2011). Is there new evidence to show that product and international diversification influence SMEs’ performance? EuroMed Journal of Business, 6(1), 63–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14502191111130316

Mustafa, M., & Chen, S. (2010). The strength of family networks in transnational immigrant entrepreneurship. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(2), 97–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.20317

Okoroafo, S. C. (1999). Internationalization of family businesses: Evidence from northwest Ohio, U.S.A. Family Business Review, 12, 147–158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.1999.00147.x

Okoroafo, S. C., & Koh, A. C. (2010). Family businesses’ views on internationalization: Do they differ by generation? International Business Research, 3(1), 22–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v3n1p22

Okoroafo, S. C., & Perryy, M. (2010). Generational perspectives of the export behavior of family businesses. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 2(3), 15–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijef.v2n3p15

Olivares-Mesa, A., & Cabrera-Suárez, K. (2006). Factors affecting the timing of the export development process: Does the family influence on the business make a difference? International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 1, 326–339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGSB.2006.012183

Patel, V. K., Pieper, T. M., & Hair, J. F. (2012). The global family business: Challenges and drivers for cross-border growth. Business Horizons, 55, 231–239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2012.01.002

Pinho, J. C. (2007). The impact of ownership: Location-specific advantages and managerial characteristics on SME foreign entry mode choices. International Marketing Review, 24, 715–734. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330710832676

Piva, E., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2013). Family firms and internationalization: An exploratory study on high-tech entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 108–129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-012-0100-y

Plakoyiannaki, E.,Kampouri, A.P., Stavraki, G., & Kotzaivazoglou, I. (2014). Family business internationalization through a digital entry mode. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 32(2), 190–207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-01-2013-0016

Procher, V. D., Urbig, D., & Volkmann, C. (2013): Time to BRIC it? Internationalization of European family firms in Europe, North America and the BRIC countries. Applied Economics Letters. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2278869

Puig, N., & Perez, P. F. (2009). A silent revolution: The internationalization of large Spanish family firms. Business History, 51, 462–483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00076790902844088

Pukall, T.J., & Calabro, A. (2014). The Internationalization of Family Firms: A Critical Review and Integrative Model. Family Business Review, 27(2), 103–125. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0894486513491423

Roida, H. Y., & Sunarjanto, N. A. (2012). Family ownership type and the international involvement of SMEs: Empirical study of agency theory in East Java Indonesia. Chinese Business Review, 11, 224–232.

Sanchez-Bueno, M. J, & Usero, B. (2014): How may the nature of family firms explain the decisions concerning international diversification? Journal of Business Research, 67, 1311–1320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.09.003

Sciascia, S., Mazzola, P., Astrachan, J. H., & Pieper, T. M. (2013). Family involvement in the board of directors: Effects on sales internationalization. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(1), 83–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2012.00373.x

Sciascia, S., Mazzola, P., Astrachan, J. H., & Pieper, T. M. (2012). The role of family ownership in international entrepreneurship: Exploring nonlinear effects. Small Business Economics, 38(1), 15–31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-010-9264-9

Segaro, E. (2010). Internationalization of family SMEs: The impact of ownership, governance, and top management team. Journal of Management & Governance, 14(1), 1–23.

Segaro, E. (2012). Internationalization of family SMEs: The impact of ownership, governance, and top management team. Journal of Management and Governance, 16(1), 147–169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10997-010-9145-2

Segaro, E., Larimo, J., & Jones, M. V. (2014). Internationalization of family small and medium sized enterprises: The role of stewardship orientation, family commitment culture and top management team. International Business Review, 23, 381–395. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.06.004

Shapiro, D. M., Gedajlovic, E., & Erdener, C. (2003). The Chinese family firm as a multinational enterprise. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11, 105–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/eb028965

Singla, C., Veliyath, R., & George, R. (2014). Family firms and Internationalization-governance Relationships: evidence of secondary Agency issues. Strategic Management Journal, 35, 606–616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2111

Sundaramurthy, C., & Dean, M. A. (2008). Family businesses’ openness to external influence and international sales: An empirical examination. Multinational Business Review, 16, 89–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/1525383X200800009

Swinth, R. L., & Vinton, K. L. (1993). Do family-owned businesses have a strategic advantage in international joint ventures? Family Business Review, 6, 19–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.1993.00019.x

Swoboda, B., & Olejnik, E. (2013). A taxonomy of small and medium-sized international family firms. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11, 130–157. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-012-0101-x

Thomas, J., & Graves, C. (2005). Internationalization of the family firm: The contribution of an entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 17, 91–113.

Tsang, E. W. K. (2001). Internationalizing the family firm: A case study of a Chinese family business. Journal of Small Business Management, 39(1), 88–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/0447-2778.00008

Tsang, E. W. K. (2002). Learning from overseas venturing experience: The case of Chinese family businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(1), 21–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00052-5

Tsao, S. M., & Lien, W. H. (2013). Family Management and Internationalization: The Impact on Firm Performance and Innovation. Management International Review, 53, 189–213. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11575-011-0125-9

Yang, N. (2012). Small business and international entrepreneurship in the economic hard time: A global strategic perspective. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 16, 113–131.

Yang, Y. H. (2014). An Investigation of the Business Performance and Manager Compensation of Taiwanese Non-Family-Controlled and Family-Controlled International Businesses. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 5(12), 12–23.

Yeoh, P. L. (2014). Internationalization and Performance Outcomes of Entrepreneurial Family SMEs: The Role of Outside CEOs, Technology Sourcing, and Innovation. Thunderbird International Business Review, 56(1), 77–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.21597

Yeung, H. W. C. (2000). Limits to the growth of family-owned business? The case of Chinese transnational corporations from Hong Kong. Family Business Review, 13, 55–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6248.2000.00055.x

Yunshi, L., Lin, W. T., & Kuei-Yang, C. (2011). Family ownership and the international involvement of Taiwan's high-technology firms: The moderating effect of high-discretion organizational slack. Management & Organization Review, 7, 201–222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2011.00220.x

Zahra, S. A. (2003). International expansion of U.S. manufacturing family businesses: The effect of ownership and involvement. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 495–512

Published
2017-08-12
How to Cite
Casillas, J. C., & Moreno-Menéndez, A. M. (2017). International business & family business: Potential dialogue between disciplines. European Journal of Family Business, 7(1-2). https://doi.org/10.24310/ejfbejfb.v7i1-2.5015
Section
Research Paper